Best exercise bike for bad knees

Do you tend to struggle with some kind of knee problem, but you’re still looking for a way that you can exercise and strengthen your knees safely? We’re here to shoe you the 4 recommended best exercise bikes for just that!

Exercise is a fantastic remedy for bad knees, but you can’t do the wrong kind of exercise because otherwise you could end up causing yourself more problems. In addition, you need to make sure that you select the right kind of equipment in order to properly complete your workout. 

Here, we’ll show you some of the best exercise bikes that are suited for riders and users that have bad knees. In addition, we’re also going to go over some of the reasons why indoor cycling is such a great choice for knee rehabilitation, and also some of the most important things you should consider when you are looking at purchasing an exercise bike.

If you’re only here to see out best pick, have a look at our best exercise bike for bad knees that we recommend you buy.

Top 5 Best Exercise Bikes for Bad Knees

OUR TOP PICK

EXERPEUTIC 1500XL Recumbent Exercise Bike with Pulse | 300 lbs. Weight Capacity

The Exerpeutic 900XL 300 lbs. Recumbent exercise bike is certainly a sturdy option and is definitely the best exercise bike for bad knees, in our opinion. This is a very popular option among people that like to use exercise bikes for a plethora of reasons.

Exerpeutic Brand

The bikes was made by Paradigm Health and Wellness company, going under the brand name Exerpeutic. The company and the brand are well known because they have made some of the most well known home gym equipment, for example inversion tables, exercise bikes, treadmills and elliptical trainers. Even though their products are not massively expensive, no quality is sacrificed either.

MyCloudFitness App

The Exerpeutic also comes with cloud fitness support. Essentially, this means that you will be able to connect the bike to the MyCloudFitness app on your phone so you can sync all of your activity to it. The app will allow you to be able to keep a record of all of your progress and you can match it with your goals that you hope to achieve. In addition, the app also has built in presents for the bike for a range of different purposes. You can set 3 different workout goals through the app, such as time, distance and calories burned. 

Design

The frame of this exercise bike is designed to be durable and tough. This beast is able to hold weight for up to 300 lbs! It’s a great choice for overweight users because of this. In addition, the frame of the bike is actually quite spacious featuring a step through design, which means that people can get off and onto it with easy. The bike also comes with a seat and handles that are very easy to adjust to whatever you need. Because of this, the bike is comfortable to ride. It also has a bunch of different proprietary systems in order to make the paddling experience more smooth.

Magnetic Tension

Some of the most important systems are the eight level magnetic tension control system and the smooth torque system. Both of these systems work in tangent in order to give the user smooth peddling no matter what tension level they are using. In order to properly measure all of the data available, the 900XL is also equipped with lots of sensors and calculators too.

To begin with, it comes with a pulse monitor on the handles, which it uses to calculate the amount of calories burned, time that’s spent on it, equivalent distance traveled and speed. This data is then stored onto the app and can be accessed whenever you need it. This means that you get a detailed chart of any past sessions. Though, it should be noted that the 3.5 inch LCD screen attached only shoes limited information, like distance, calories burned, time, speed, pulse and scan.

This bike is also most certainly one of the best senior friendly products that we have mentioned on this review. While the bike isn’t the most expensive in comparison, it certainly gives the best performance. One of the qualities that a lot of people most appreciate about this product is the fact that it doesn’t make any sort of noise. The flywheel and the V belt are accurately balanced which means that you get a noiseless experience. In addition, this exercise bike is very low maintenance, so you don’t need to spend copious amounts of time maintaining and oiling the bike.

Is the Exerpeutic 900Xl the Ideal Exercise Bike for Bad Knees? 

This exercise bike is by far one of the best exercise bikes for bad knees, and in fact, you could go as far as to say that it’s the best exercise bike for people who are physically limited. The primary reason for this is that it has such a spacious sitting space. For older people that have difficult with folding their legs, there should be no worries about sitting on the bike. 

In addition, the smooth peddle means that it’s much more comfortable to peddle by older people. These features also make the Exerpeutic 900Cl by far one of the most suitable and best exercise bikes for bad knees and also for older people that want a healthy option for recreational purposes. 

Of course, the bike is not only suitable for seniors. This bike could also be a good option for millennials looking for a functional workout option that’s also modern. Having the cloud syncing option available means that users won’t lose track of the progress they’ve made. Even if you end up working out in a different place you are able to sync that data to the app instead, and when you next use your personal 900XL you will know where you are starting from. In addition, it only weighs 76 pounds, and it also has wheels. This means that the bike is lightweight enough for you to be able to shift it across a room and you can place it near your work station to have a quick and easy biking session.

Pros and Cons

Pros

  • Fully recumbent
  • Riding experience is quiet
  • Able to track speed, distance and time
  • Heart rate monitor
  • Cloud sync support (using the app)

Cons

  • Can take up a lot of floor space
  • Can take longer to assemble for some users.

While this bike is fantastic in a lot of ways, certain users have reported that the seat isn’t cushioned enough. This is a problem that’s easily fixed though by adding in a padded cushion. We’ve also heard of a couple of users reporting issues with tension control. Ultimately, in the end this was an issue because the bike hadn’t been properly installed. The customer services are also very helpful and there are also a bunch of videos online to show you how to properly install the bike. Ultimately, it’s all good in the end.  

The Exerpeutic 900CL is definitely out best choice for the ideal experience on an exercise bike for bad knees. It is great across the board, providing good price, feature set, reliability, quality and even a lot of positive reviews. Of course, you are getting proper value for money but it’s still important to note that the bike is certainly not top of the line either. We’ve put another semi recumbent foldable exercise bike as our fourth pick on the list too. With that being said, if you would like to step up to a more advanced model in the same line of bikes from Exerpeutic, you could checkout the Exerpeutic 4000 Magnetic Recumbent Bike with 12 Workout Programs.

EXERPEUTIC 1500XL Recumbent Exercise Bike with Pulse | 300 lbs. Weight Capacity
  • Your purchase includes Exerpeutic 900 XL Recumbent Exercise Bike with Pulse | Adult Assembly required, tools provided
  • Exercise Bike dimensions: 54” L x 22” W x 34” H. | Product Weight: 74 lbs. | Weight capacity: 300 lbs. | User height – 5’3” – 6’ 6” | Seat adjustments – 5.3” - 6.6” | Magnetic...
  • Large Oversized seat cushion and back rest for users of any size

EDITOR'S CHOICE

Schwinn A20 Recumbent Bike

The second pick on our list of the best exercise bikes for users that have knee problems is the Schwinn A20 Recumbent bike series. Schwinn is actually by far one of the oldest cycling manufacturing companies in the USA. Eventually, Schwinn started creating indoor exercising bikes in order to meet the demand of the market. Nautilus owns Schwinn, in addition to Bowflex. You may have heard of some of their most popular bike lines: A 10 series. With that being said, A10 series consists of upright bikes, and here we are covering recumbent types in order to get the best exercise bike for your painful knees, so we’ve covered the A20 line in this article instead. 

Design

The Schwinn A20 Recumbent is a product that comes from the company’s Active Series. One of the main characteristics of he active series is that it uses a highly streamlines design. In addition to that, it also uses premium materials that make the quality better and ensure the durability of the bike as a whole. The bike also comes along with transportation wheels that can be used for secure storage. 

The Schwinn A20 Recumbent Bike Series actually comes with a bunch of fantastic features. One particularly noteworthy feature is the perimeter weighted high inertia flywheel. This flywheel has a smooth and jitter free spinning operation, and because of this you can be sure that your ride will be a smooth and quiet one. We believe that this is a vital feature for any users with physical limitations, because there isn’t any danger of jerk movements when you are riding this bike. 

Programmed Presets

The bike comes with 6 presets and it also has a quick start option. These presets are divided into different difficulty level categories, and these different categories allow the person to be able to exercise at a range of intensities of cardio and muscular workouts. With that being said, you should remember that if you are only just starting and you have knee pains, you should be trying to start on the lower difficulty levels. You are able to do your workout in a relaxed position where you have lower back support. The bike also allows you to workout your legs and core. There are 8 total magnetic resistance levels that you can use for your workouts.

Large LCD 

The Schwinn A20 additionally comes with the normal features that you would expect from other exercise bikes. The main feature set of this particular bike is somewhat better than the Exerpeutic 900XL that we just covered on this ranking. The A20 series features a large LCD console that will give the rider 8 tracking numbers and will provide accurate records of your recent sessions. There are also large and segregated buttons that are also present on the display that you use to navigate all of the different functions. The large console also comes with a speaker.

Not only is this exercise bike full of features, but it’s also very comfortable. It has a padded, contoured seat that gives good lower back support. The side handlebars feature heart rate sensors and these will continuously measure your heart rate when you hold them as you ride the bike. These bars also aid the rider in maintaining a steady position as they ride. 

Is Schwinn the Ideal Feature-Rich Exercise Bike for Users that have Joint Issues?

In this review, we’ve thought about people with knee joint pains in addition to some other potential issues such as in the lower back. We went on the hunt for the best bike with the most features, and have looked for one that gives an exceptionally comfortable ride. These points are the reasons why this bike is one of the best exercise bikes for users that have injured knees or for those that are physically limited in some other way:

  • Odded and contoured seats
  • Heart rate monitors ergonomically placed 
  • Bike is stable in that the back legs are positioned behind where the upper body is
  • A horizontally adjustable seat pole that can help people with larger legs have more room
  • You can exercise in a relaxed position and have plenty of lower back support.

Pros and Cons of the Schwinn A20 Series Exercise Bike

Pros

  • Large LCD display that has categorized buttons in order to choose presets
  • Contoured and padded seats to provide lots of comfort and balance
  • 8 different levels of magnetic resistance
  • Speakers are front facing and there’s a 3.5 mm jack to play music

The primary reason we’ve recommended the Schwinn A20 Recumbent Bike Series is because it provides such a smooth riding experience. The high inertia wheel does a great job of replicating a range of different riding situations and it gives you a real enjoyable feel for the exercise. You are paying a really good price to get all of the features that you could need.

Schwinn also has a bike series in the upright bikes category too, if that’s something that you are also interested in! 

Schwinn A20 Recumbent Bike
  • Your purchase includes One Schwinn A20 Recumbent Bike, User and assembly manual
  • Recumbent Bike dimensions: 61" L x 19" W x 40.5" H. Maximum user weight: 275 lbs.
  • Electrical connection required. Plugs into any standard electrical wall outlet on a 110V-120V circuit. 120V 60Hz AC input, 1.5A output

BEST VALUE

Marcy Recumbent Exercise Bike with Resistance ME-709

Our next pick for the best exercise bikes for users with bad knees is a great option if you want a bike that provides good value for money. Thankfully, the features are not sacrificed to make this affordable exercise bike. As far as exercise bikes and other cardio exercise machines are concerned, Marcy is by far one of the best and most well known brands that create incredible experiences in addition to excellent products.

Marcy has been a leader in the fitness equipment business for around 35 years. They have a customer service team based in the USA. The Marcy ME-709 does not provide any extra frills but the bike has very smooth paddling, and is definitely one of the best when it comes to efficient handling. 

Design

The exercise bike consists of a frame that is made out of premium 14 gauge steel tubing, PVS, and rubber. The result of these materials combined is a high quality structure that gives both efficient performance and design. The bikes is made in such a way that it could easily be used daily for many years without you even needing to replace it.

One of the best things about the Marcy ME-709 is that it has an adjustable seat. Similar products by competitors simply don’t come close when it comes to the amount of adjustability that it offers. The bike features a step through design that is made to be easier on the back and on the knees. This means that the bike is able to offer plenty of leg space and a lot of room for you to properly move to your full capacity.

Another great thing about this exercise bike is that it has a padded seat. In comparison to all of the other competitors that we’ve covered on this list, the Marcy ME-709 gives one of the best and most comfortable padded seats. These seats help you to get an even better comfort level and they help you to have good balance. The design as a whole is made to give you comfort that will last, and this helps to make the ride a pleasant experience, and one that you are going to look forward to whenever you choose to use it. The handlebars are positioned at the right levels to give you a well balanced position. The only real issue here is that there are no heart rate sensors.

Flywheel

One interesting feature that’s included in the Marcy ME-709 is actually present in the flywheels. These flywheels have a proprietary magnetic resistance system. This magnetic resistance system will let the user adjust the resistance in accordance to their needs and specific training regime. In addition, the resistance is controlled by a handle that is positioned below the handle, so the user is able to change the resistance easily while they are still on the bike. This means that the bike is much more efficient and useable.

LCD Console

In order to track any sessions and routines that you’ve done on your exercise bike, the Marcy ME-709 comes with an LCD screen. The display will show you all of the different readings from the odometer, the number of calories you’ve burned, the amount of time that you’ve spent on the bike, and finally the amount of distance that you’ve travelled. These readings will help you to make a routine that suits you and will allow you to be able to easily track your own progress.

Is the Marcy Recumbent Exercise Bike ME-709 one of the Best Exercise Bikes for Bad Knees?

This bike is a fantastic choice for users that have problems with their joints. These are the main points that demonstrate this:

Step Through Design - gives you optimum mobilities while you are training for much faster dismounting and mounting. This design means that it’s very easy on your joints and lower back. 

Comfortably Padded Seat - Designed ergonomically withhigh density foam. It also has foam covered handles that will give the extra support that’s needed for seniors.

Counterbalances Pedals - There are additional weights on the pedals that will give you even more support for your feet. The paddles also come with safety straos tii.

The aforementioned points are the key reasons as to why this is one of the best exercise bikes for riders that have a hard time with pains in their knees.

Pros and Cons of the Marcy Recumbent Exercise Bike ME-709

Pros

  • Features a step-through design
  • Seat comfortably padded
  • Counterbalanced pedals
  • Very comfortable sitting experience

Cons

  • Doesn’t have heart rate monitoring

This fantastic design and elite quality exercise bike is definitely one we would recommend to anyone that wants to get a bit more exercise into their day but who have a hard time with it due to bad knees. This bike will give a complete and a safe experience to any users that are physically limited because all of the features are there to account for this.

If you are in the market for an exercise bike without the extra frills that you can use to do your exercise routine at home for minimal cost, then this is definitely the option that you should consider.

Sale
Marcy Recumbent Exercise Bike with Resistance ME-709
  • STEP-THROUGH DESIGN – Featuring heavy-duty construction 14-gauge steel tubing with a powder coated finish, the step-through design allows maximum mobility during training for quick mounting and...
  • EIGHT RESISTANCE LEVELS – This stationary bike uses a magnetic resistance mechanism with 8 levels of resistance. The tension knobs control the difficulty to simulate riding on different terrains and...
  • EASY-TO-READ COMPUTER SCREEN – The ultra-functional LCD computer screen acts as a odometer and has a sharp panel display that shows time, speed, distance, and calories burned in extra-large numbers...

RUNNER UP

Exerpeutic Gold 525XLR Folding Recumbent Exercise Bike, 400 lbs

The final product that we are going to cover on our list of the best exercise bikes for users with bad knees is the Exerpeutic Gold 525XLR Folding Recumbent Exercise Bike, 500 lbs. This bike is made by the reputable manufacturer Exerpeutic.

Of course, you already know that we’ve covered another model from this company in this article, so you should be aware that they make such fantastic ergonomic products even for those who struggle with physical limitations. This exercise bike has a streamlines design and an upgraded version of 300ST heavy duty 300 lbs. We’ve already thought about the 300SR heavy duty 300 lbs as a part of the best folding exercise bikes here. 

Design

The primary and most obvious feature of this exercise bike is its fantastic semi-recumbent design. Another great feature that is worth mentioning, however, is the bike’s foldable design. The bike has a large weight capacity of 400 lbs. This capacity comes down the heavy duty and extremely durable steel frame. A weight limit of 400 lbs also means that this bike is able to fit pretty much all users with varying body weights.

One of the key features of this bike, and one that puts this feature on the list in the first place, is its seat adjustability. It has a large seat with lots of plush cushioning and back support. You can also adjust the position to fit 5 foot 2 inch and 6 foot 5 inch user height. 

The LCD screen that’s in front of the the exercise bike is also closer to the pedals and near to the ground. This means that there is more room for natural leg movement across the bicycle. In addition, the device weighs 57 pounds and the framework is slim. This also makes way for secure handling and means you can easily shift the bike from one place to the next. It also allows you to store the bike easily. 

Another significant feature included with this bike is its magnetic tension control system. This bike provides a total of 8 different levels of varying resistance. This will allow the user to get specific control over how much stress they want to put their body under. This means you can really cater your workout to your needs. In addition, the exercise bike includes proprietary technology within its paddling system, which is known as the double drive system of transmission. 

3 Piece Cranking System

The bike is made with a 3 piece cranking system that has high torque, which is able to provide constantly smooth pedalling movement. The dual transmission flywheel means that it’s possible to do higher resistance workouts too. With that being said, if you are just starting out then you need to be starting at the lower ends of the resistance and then build up from there.

Foldability for Storage Purposes

The key reason why this bike is such a good choice for use in small spaces is its folding capability. The Exerpeutic 525XLR is able to fold to around half of its size. When folded, its dimensions are 27” L x 18” W x 48” H. In addition to this, the bike also has transportation wheels. This kind of set up means that you will be able to quickly move the bike around a store into a closet or in the corner. 

The Exerpeutic Gold bike also comes with the features that you would expect in pretty much any exercise bike. It has a heart rate sensor on the handlebar that accurately measures the rider’s heart rate. In addition, the bike has an odometer, a calorie counter, a distance meter and a time tracker too. Having all of these measurements can help you to keep track of your workout regime a little more easily. 

Is the Exerpeutic 525XLR semi recumbent bike the Best Exercise Bike for Bad Joints? 

This bike is certainly one of the best as far as exercise bikes for people with painful joints is concerned. It has all of the features that you could need in a situation where you would need a bike to rehabilitate your knees. It has a high weight capacity, a large seat that’s cushioned well, a low height LCD that provides you with plenty of leg space. In addition, it has an adjustable seat position that can be changed to work with different heights, and the design is foldable and semi recumbent, so it’s a good fit for bad knees. 

Pros and Cons

Pros

  • It’s very easy to get off and on it because the design is so spacious
  • The dual transmission and flywheel system make for an incredibly smooth and balanced paddling time
  • Lots of control on the resistance

Cons

  • It’s a little difficult to read the LCD screen from the seating position

As far as this price range is concerned, the Exerpeutic model gives the best kinds of features that you may find in the higher end models that are hand picked to also optimize on price. This model is able to provide potentially some of the best user experiences for users that suffer with painful joints. 

Exerpeutic Gold 525XLR Folding Recumbent Exercise Bike, 400 lbs
  • 400 lb. Extended weight capacity utilizing heavy duty and high durability steel frame. 27% more steel than the Exerpeutic 400XL folding recumbent bike for more maximum performance
  • 8 level magnetic tension control System. An easy to read large LCD computer display indicates distance, calories burned, time, speed, Pulse, odometer and Scan
  • Large seat cushion and back rest for users of any size. Seat adjustable to fit 5'2" to 6'5" user height which is great for taller people.

RUNNER UP

Exerpeutic ExerWorK 1000 Fully Adjustable Desk Folding Exercise Bike with Pulse

If you work from home, you may be wondering how you can get to be more active throughout the day when you have a job that is generally required to be a sedentary one. In addition, you’re wondering how you can meet this criteria, in addition to finding something that’s friendly on your bad knees.

If this sounds like you, why not try the Exerpeutic ExerWork 1000? Now, we’ve already mentioned the high quality you can expect from Exerpeutic with their other entries on this list, so we won’t cover that again, but this is a really unique offering that you are sure to love.

The Exerpeutic ExerWork 1000 will allow you to pedal while you work. Essentially, it’s a combination between a desk and a semi-recumbent bike. Of course, because it’s a desk the seat is pretty vital. Because of this, Exerpeutic features a seat that has aerodynamic healthcare technology. This means that the seat does not only support you properly but it will also stay cool even after you’ve used it for many hours.

Of course, it should be mentioned that the fully recumbent pedalling position is given up in support of the extra versatility of making this a desk. So, this is a semi recumbent bike. This is great, so long as you don’t require a fully recumbent exercise bike and your knees are able to handle it. The bike is a fantastic choice if you want to get a little bit more active throughout the day and multitask between exercise and work.

The bike’s dimensions are 45.3 L x 25 W x 51.3 H in inches. It may be a little bit too heavy to move around easily as it weighs 65 lbs in total. It can, however, accommodate somewhat larger weights, having a weight capacity of 300 lbs.

To use this bike, you will need to be between 5 foot 2 and 6 foot 3 in height, so it may not be the best choice if you are shorter. 

Pros

  • 3 piece cranks
  • Versatile (can be used as a desk and as an exercise bike!)
  • Foldable
  • Features a comfortable seat using aerodynamic healthcare technology

Cons

  • Somewhat too vertical - may not be suitable for everyone
Sale
Exerpeutic ExerWorK 1000 Fully Adjustable Desk Folding Exercise Bike with Pulse
  • Sliding Desktop: large fully adjustable desktop with tilt, forward, back, up and down adjustability for sitting or standing positions. 3 angle adjustments (0, 16 and 33 degrees), 5 height adjustments...
  • Patented XBike Desk and Exercise Semi-Recumbent Bicycle. 2.5" Thick large AirSoft seat with extra comfort. Adjustable to fit 5’1” to 6’3” user height
  • Weight capacity: 300 lbs. Semi-recumbent design for comfortable, effective workouts

Best Exercise Bike for Bad Knees - Buying Guide

Benefits of Indoor Cycling for Rehabilitating Bad Knees

Putting your knees under too much strain by partaking in high impact exercise or by overworking your joints could actually cause your pain to go from being bad to much worse, but this is something you can easily avoid if you follow the suggestions of the experts.

Exercise is an excellent therapy for knee pain, but it does need to be the proper kind of exercise.

Indoor stationary bikes and other kinds of machines for cardio such as elliptical trainers can help you to get a good aerobic exercise but without the extra problems associated with putting excess stress onto your knee joints.

In fact, recumbent stationary bikes are probably the best because it means that you don’t have to sit upright while you exercise, and this means that there’s less weight on the knee joints. 

Knees are by far the largest joints in the body, so they are very prone to injuries. Because of this, outdoor cycling is not the best option because it’s not always predictable how consistent and smooth the ride is going to be. You should take heed that it’s important not to put your knees in a situation where they will be dealing with any jerky, sudden movements.

On the other hand though, indoor cycling is a great choice because this activity is low impact and non weight bearing. It’s a contro;led movement in a stationary and thus, stable position. This exercise can help to strengthen and rehabilitate your knees. 

Comparison of Top 4 Best Exercise Bikes for Bad Knees

We’ve spent many hours doing the research, checking reviews and having our own experiences of using these bikes in order to create this list of the best exercise bikes for users that have bad knees. Of course, when we talk about users that have bad knees, what we mean is manageable pain. If you have severe pain or if you are in doubt, you should always check with a health professional before you get started with any sort of exercising routine. 

Final Words

If you are someone that suffers from bad knees because you are overweight or because you have sports injuries, it may be that exercising is the last thing on your mind. Exercise could sound like a terrible idea for those that have had knee replacements and they need rehab. You need not worry though, there are plenty of safe and reliable methods to get active and rehabilitate your knees.

Using an indoor exercise bike that has been regarded as a good option for those with bad knees, providing all of the features that people with bad knees require, is a fantastic choice for people that just want to get their little bit of physical activity into their day. In fact, this activity is a perfectly safe knee rehabilitation exercise that’s recommended by experts. This sort of physical activity will help to restore and help improve the knee joint strength and the stability. Your flexibility and reach will also recover by participating in a program of slowly increasing amounts of exercise time. 

Even if you do have options when it comes to selecting the best possible exercise bike for bad knees, a lot of experts recommend opting for either a fully recumbent or a semi recumbent exercise bike instead of an upright exercise bike. A recumbent bike will have a seat in addition to a backrest that will let you do the exercise from a position that’s comfortable for you with back support. In addition to this, the pedals are quite far out to the front instead of under your hips and body as you would get in an upright bike. One study conducted at Colorado State University states that users should think about the degree of their knee injuries before they opt for an upright bike. 

With that in mind, we’ve take then time to make a selection of some of the 3 highly recommended recumbent bikes:

  • The best stationary bike for bad knees (overall)): Exerpeutic 900Xl 300 Lbs Weight Capacity Recumbent Exercise Bike With Pulse
  • Best Features: Schwinn A20 Recumbent Bike Series
  • Budget Choice: Marcy Recumbent Exercise Bike with Resistance ME-709
  • And the best semi recumbent foldable exercise bike:
  • The best for small spaces (foldable recumbent): Exerpeutic Gold 525XLR Folding Recumbent Exercise Bike, 400 lbs.

Here are the bikes that are considered by us to be some of the best exercise bikes for bad knees. We’ve considered a number of factors to also ensure that seniors and people with painful joints would also be able to use them effectively. 

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *